The Rise of the House of Rothschild Part 5 (of a 6 Part Series): 1880 – 1905

Palestine Exploration Fund

Not long after the death of the youngest brother, James, in Paris, the British house formed an entity to begin work on mapping out Palestine. Founded in 1865, the Palestine Exploration Fund was, for its first 25 years, both the principal British exploration society in the Holy Land and a surveying body which was heavily dependent on the Royal Engineers and the War Office. Survey work was closely linked to military interests as well as to biblical, historical and archaeological research. Famous names involved with the work of the Fund included Charles Wilson, the man instrumental in establishing an organized British military intelligence system. The Rothschilds are cunning; they always find non-Jewish names to front their organisations. In a matter as sensitive as Palestine, the family preferred to remain in the shadows. And so it was with the PEF.

The Palestine Exploration Fund (PEF) is the oldest exploration society of the Levant which is active today. Since its founding meeting in 1865 in Westminster Abbey of London, the PEF scholars have conducted systematic exploration of Jerusalem and the Holy Land.  A remarkable enterprise carried out by the PEF, in cooperation with the Royal Engineers, was the first precise scientific survey of the region – The Survey of the Western Palestine – which yielded the pioneering high-quality detailed maps of the Holy Land.

 The cream of Britain’s oligarchy gathered in London for this meeting, with funding provided by the Rothschilds, and working in association with other key Rothschild entities such as the Church of England, the Crown, and the United Grand Lodges of England (the UGLE) freemasonry- the highest body in the world of freemasonry. 

“This country of Palestine belongs to you and me, it is essentially ours. It was given to the Father of Israel in the words: “Walk through the land in the length of it, and in the breadth of it, for I will give it unto thee”. We mean to walk through Palestine in the length and in the breadth of it, because that land has been given unto us. It is the land from which comes news of our Redemption. It is the land towards which we turn as the fountain of all our hopes; it is the land to which we may look with as true a patriotism as we do in this dear old England, which we love so much.”

Speech at the first meeting of the PEF: William Thomson, the Archbishop of York and first President of the PEF.

British freemasonry at that time was undergoing an explosive growth. The Grand Master of the UGLE from 1875 until he ascended the throne in 1901 was the Prince of Wales, who has long been a front man for the Rothschilds.  In 1866, the Prince of Wales founded the elite Quator Coronati (“four Corners”) lodge; Quarter Coronati here refers to the 4 corners of the Haram Sharif, or the Temple Mount. It means that within these 4 corners, the Temple Mount must be established.

From 1867 to 1880, the PEF conducted extensive archaeological digs under and around the Al Aqsa Mosque complex, and held freemasonic lodge meetings under the Al Aqsa compound. Besides this, the entirety of Palestine was mapped out.  The PEF also acted as a front for British Intelligence, and was founded “with the avowed intention of gradually introducing the Jew who is eventually to occupy and govern this territory”.

 Now that Palestine was thoroughly mapped out, it was time to start the “back-to-Israel” movement, and we shall see how this came about.

The Origin of Zionism

When the Russian Tsar passed the May Laws in 1882, this triggered an exodus of Jews leaving Russia and heading west into Europe. But, Europe did not want these Jews to settle in their countries. Their problem became the Rothschild’s problem. After failing to get the May Laws rescinded, the French house came up with an idea. First, many of the Jews that left Russia after 1882 went to America, Australia, Latin America, and South Africa. Most of the Jews in South Africa can trace their ancestry to Eastern Europe.

But the Rothschilds had another idea; this was the start of a “Jewish back to Israel” moment on the path of the Family. And, this is how their thinking went: – “Turkey was heavily in debt to us. Egypt was running on our finances, and being managed by our agents; neither party will be able to make much of a noise if we sent a few thousand of our Russian folks down to Palestine”. With this in mind, Edmond Rothschild arranged a meeting in Paris in September 1882. As Edmond- youngest son of James – was not involved in running the bank, the family gave him this assignment. Edmond met with Rabbi Shmuel Mohilewer, leader of the Russian Jews, and Joseph Feinberg, head of the first Jewish settlement in Jaffa (Tel Aviv). The Jewish population had grown from 6,000 in 1840 to 20,000 in 1880. Mohilewer wanted Edmond to subsidise Jewish settlements in Palestine, and this Edmond was not prepared to do.

 After several days of heated arguments between all three, Edmond laid down his conditions:-

  1. He, Edmond Rothschild, was prepared to finance an experimental settlement of Russian Jews, provided that they would submit to  strict supervision by his agents;
  2. An agricultural expert would be sent to Palestine to report on the viability of farming in the region;
  3.  Edmond’s support for the colonists was to be secret ;
  4. The immigrants were to work on the land, and not set up as traders and craftsmen; they were not to sublet or sell their holdings; they were not to hire labor- and they were not allowed to pay their children wages;
  5.  Every new settler was obliged to sign an agreement “to submit myself to the orders which the administration shall think necessary in the name of M le Baron (Edmond) in anything concerning the cultivation  of the land and its service , and if any action should be taken against me, I have no right to oppose it”;
  6.  There must be unity in buying land, for if each one acts separately the price of land will rise greatly. Only if we proceed quietly and cautiously (the Rothschild way) will our work be crowned with success – – – .

The above was some of the main conditions laid down by Edmond.  His conditions were accepted, and work on the settlement soon got underway. Colonising land could only be bought with patience, discipline, tenacity and hard work.  If the settlers did not develop backbone they would not survive. There was much more at stake than the comfort and crop yields of the first workers on the land. Edmond had an optimistic vision of large-scale settlement because it could make a major contribution towards solving the “Jewish Question”, and because it would show the world that “his people “could succeed as primary producers, and not just as “parasitical intermediaries”.

To this end, Edmond instructed the farmers to grow not only indigenous  crops – figs, olives, almonds and citrus fruit – but to try out vines, wheat, flowers for extracting perfume essences, and mulberries upon which to breed silkworms. Edmond also introduced grapefruit into Palestine. In short, Edmond built up a first class agro-economy infrastructure in Palestine from 1882 onwards. As the settlements grew, he provided for their every need – houses, schools, synagogues, free medical clinics.

 In 1887, he and his wife made a tour of their colonies in Palestine. In Jerusalem, he tried to buy the Wailing Wall. Negotiations with the Arab owner of the property were begun, and a price of 700,000 francs was agreed. At the last moment, the Sephardic chief rabbi intervened, who, as the leader of the Jews in Jerusalem perfectly understood the political-religious sensibilities of the local situation.  He wanted to stop this deal which would upset his Muslim neighbors. Edmond was a Rothschild and he understood – and the deal was called off.

 Before departure from Port Said on his yacht, Edmond gave a party. As the yacht was about to set sail, an elderly settler was found still on board. When asked to go back on land he retorted: “you can go back to the Promised Land – I am already on the promised yacht’.

 Edmond realized the political situation of Palestine with the Ottoman Empire was delicate. In order to succeed it would be best to go slow in Palestine to avoid problems, and wait until the time was right. The best time would be when the Ottoman Empire was crippled and weakened to such an extent that no opposition would emanate from that quarter. Because of his go-slow approach in settling Palestine, Edmond was not liked by the senior orthodox rabbis and their representatives in the Illuminati circles. But the Rothschilds had taken control of the Illuminati and within this body, their word was law.

 To cite one example: a very revealing incident occurred in 1889. It was a so-called Sabbatical year. Orthodox Jewish law forbids the tilling of Jewish land during every 7th year. Edmond thought that idleness for so long a period would ruin most of the young settlements. He remonstrated with the rabbis of Jerusalem. He flew into a fit. For months on end he plunged into ferocious theological maneuvers. He gave up racing, banking, collecting and all his leisures. To combat one fanaticism, he had to assume another. He convoked a series of secret conferences of rabbis friendly to his position. It was decided that the sabbatical period must be worked through, but without breaking orthodox tradition. And so Edmond gave the following ruling: “All the Jewish lands in Palestine had to be sold off, for one year only, to people of another faith. In the eyes of God, Edmond reasoned to them, the settlers would then be working for non-Jews, which was permissible – and not for themselves”.

 They were dealing with a Rothschild. Edmond laid a powerfully-worded brief of his argument before Rabbi Isaacs Elchanan of Lithuania, famed throughout the world as the greatest orthodox authority. After much pressure on Edmond’s part, Rabbi Elchanan issued his verdict: “the soil of Zion could be tilled during the sabbatical year”. Such Talmudic reasoning was stock in trade for the family. All this infuriated the orthodox leadership. The chief rabbi of Europe was Rabbi Zadok Kahn who condemned the Rothschilds. In reply to these accusations, Edmond was quite uncompromising: “These are MY colonies, and I shall do with them as I like – – – and if you do not listen to my orders, then I will remove my diplomatic and financial assistance. Either they give me their unquestioning obedience, rooted out troublemakers and devoted themselves totally to the work on hand, or they would not receive another cent from me “.

 So, this in short, is how the “back-to-Israel” movement or Zionism started.


 We have already traced back to its source that vast historical phenomenon we call “the Jews”. The true start of this affair began in 900 BC, and then got concretised in 622 BC, with the production of Leviticus and Deuteronomy. On that day the petty Palestinian tribe of Judah produced a racial creed, the disruptive effect on human affairs may have exceeded that of war and epidemics. This was the day on which the theory of the “master race” was set up as the Law.

 In the late 19th century, under Rothschild pressure, the Laws restricting Jewish abilities were removed, and the Jews became emancipated. The lowering of barriers did not have the effect of merging the Jews into the rest of mankind. Rather, it gave the Illuminati the opportunity to ruin the West by revolution. As persecution could no longer be said to exist, some new word had to be found, capable of intimidating non-Jews, and more importantly, of terrifying the Jews.  “Abracadabra” might have served as well, for the term “anti-Semitism” is patently false in relation to people who are definitely NOT Semites (The Khazars), and whose Law commands the destruction of Semites (the inhabitants of Palestine).

 The term “anti-Semitism” was first used by a German paper in 1879. The family took over this word, and weaponised it. The object was intimidation, especially when the family began to bare its Talmudic claws, used by the family against anyone who opposes the Jewish Talmudic/Zionist policy. The end of the 20th century, the mass mind had to a great extent submitted to this idea. When a person says that a Jew or Zionist is the preparer and instigator of mischief and revolution – then he is labelled “anti-Semite”.

 Of all the great falsehoods which combine to form the modern “world of lies, or “fake news”, there is none more powerful or heavily charged with peril that that of being labelled “anti-Semite”. It is most dangerous currently because it is being used with great success as a weapon of psychological warfare to prevent the peoples of the world  from discovering that they are being railroaded into a planned “new World Order”. It is backed up by a network of organizations with unlimited money and manpower. This great lie is being used ruthlessly to suppress information and to veto all genuine debate on many issues, the most important of these being developments in the Middle East, where the establishment of Israel has produced a chain reaction of the most alarming consequences for Jew and non-Jew alike. The word itself is a lie of a very special kind, representing the truth turned upside down.

 Politicians and parties in the West found money, media support and votes in return for supporting the cause of the “persecuted” Jews in Russia, and for advocating the “return” to Palestine. The twin machines of Zionism and communism worked in synchronization, each promoting the aim of the other.  The dominant force, Zionism, has corrupted governments at the top levels, while communism has eroded the foundations of nation-states at the bottom level.  In their dealings with the masses, the rulers were forced by the threat of revolution from below to yield ever more authority to the Rothschilds, until they fell.   Then, they were further constrained by the power of finance to support the plan of the symbolic “return” to Palestine. Thus, the story of the emergence of Zionism and communism – both from the same source, and of the delicate interplay between these two, the one coiling itself around the rulers in the West, and the other undermining the structures of the nation-states is indeed a fascinating one- and which would achieve great results for the Rothschilds, over the next ensuing few decades. Zionism was essentially the rejoinder of the Talmudic center in Russia to the emancipation of the Jews in the West.

 In the 1880s, communism and Zionism began their simultaneous assault on the West. For the Jews, their greatest enemy has been the West and Christianity; the majority of attacks upon themselves and their communities have come from the West and the Christian world. The Jewish race, since antiquity, never had this problem from other races and faiths. 

Dr.Chaim Weizmann’s book, Trial and Error “, is the best single source of information about the twin roots of Zionism and communism. He became its roving plenipotentiary; he was for 40 years the darling of the West. He became the first president of the Zionist state of Israel, and he told the entire story in astonishing candor. He shows how, many nations and peoples, spent their lives and treasure on the promotion of these two complementary purposes. The Rothschilds had been organizing for a long time, and as the end of the 19th century came, were now prepared to exert pressure on international politics. The most successful specialist of this “exertion of pressure” was young Chaim Weizmann.

Theodor Herzl & the Zionist Congress

 Theodor Herzl was a Budapest-born Vienna journalist.  He submitted a draft proposal to Salomon Albert of the Austrian House, in 1891, noting: “I bring to the Rothschilds and the big Jews their historical mission “. This manuscript was titled: “Addressed to the Rothschilds”.

 The family gave him a contract to publish this in a book form. The result was “The Jewish State”, published in Vienna, in 1896. The family then assembled a congress in Basle, Switzerland, attended by 197 delegates – mainly from Russia. Herzl became the head of the World Zionist Congress, which resulted from this first Zionist congress.

 Herzl then made the rounds of European leaders and he issued his famous phrase, “When we sink we become a revolutionary proletariat; when we rise, there rises the terrible power of our purse”. Rothschild words in Herzl’s mouth!! There, he told European leaders that he would diminish revolutionary propaganda in proportion to the support that his territorial ambition received from them. Herzl was just an ordinary figure, yet he was admitted into the corridors of power throughout Europe. This was only possible due to the Rothschild Network of Power.

 Ties of race and interest bound these men together. The web of their communication quivered at the slightest touch. They maintained between them an incredibly accurate network of economic, political, and financial intelligence at the highest level. They could withdraw support here, provide additional funds there, move immense sums of money with lightning speed and secrecy from one corner to another corner of their financial empires, and influence the political decisions of many countries.

 With such a power behind him Herzl was in a position to make demands and utter threats. The powerful men who formed this international network at that time may not, as individuals, have believed in Zionism, and may even have been privately opposed to it, but even they were not powerful enough to oppose it, or to deny support to a policy laid down by the Illuminati Council, headed by the Rothschild family – leaders of world Jewry. While making his rounds, Herzl also visited the Sultan of Turkey, Abdul Hamid. Herzl offered money for Palestine, and the Sultan replied that his people had won their Empire with blood, and owned it: “The Jews may spare their millions. When my Empire is divided, perhaps they will get Palestine for nothing. But only our corpse can be divided. I will never consent to vivisection!”

 As a result of the “irresistible pressure”, the British government offered Uganda to Herzl. If history offers a stranger thing, I have not discovered it. He urged acceptance of the “Uganda scheme”, favoring it as a temporary refuge, but he was opposed from all sides. Orders for his assassination were issued by the Illuminati, and on 3rd July 1904, he died, ostensibly from a “heart attack”.

At the 1903 Congress in Basle, a delegate, Nahum Sokoloff said, “Jerusalem will one day become the capital of world peace”.  That the ambition to make it the capital of the world became clear when Israel was created in 1948. Whether mankind would find it to be the capital of peace remains to be seen.

 After Herzl’s death, Chaim Weizmann revoked the Uganda offer. Weizman was now appointed by the family to be the overall coordinator of the Zionist project.

 The Turks were doing all they could to keep the Jews out of Palestine. If Zionism were to succeed in its aims, Ottoman rule of Palestine must end. Arab independence could be prevented with the help of Britain and France.  A major war was looming in the near future (World War 1), and knowing that America would be drawn into the conflict, it would be better for the Zionists and the family to concentrate their energies in America and Britain.

A Study of the Jewish Mentality

 The chief difficulty in writing about the Jewish Question is the super sensitivities of Jews concerning the whole matter. There is a vague feeling that even to openly use the word “Jew”, or to expose it to print, is somehow improper. The Jews constitute less than half a percent of the world’s population. The same percentage of any other peoples would scarcely occasion comment, because we would not meet with a representative of them wherever we went in high places, into the innermost councils of power, and in the vast networks of high finance.

 Yet we meet Jews everywhere in the upper circles of power. He has the initiative and vision which automatically projects him to the top, and as a consequence, he is more marked than any other race. And, that is where the Jewish Question begins. It begins in simple terms – how does the Jew habitually and so restlessly gravitate to the highest places? What puts him there? Why is he put there? What does he do there? What does the fact of him being there mean to the world?

 The use of the word –humanity- in connection with the Jew throws a side meaning; in this connection it is usually understood that humanity ought to be shown to the Jew (e.g.; the Holocaust). There is just as great an obligation upon the Jew to show his humanity towards the rest of mankind, and to the Palestinians in particular; for the Jew has been too long accustomed to think of himself as the exclusive “claimant” on the humanitarianism of society. Society has a large claim against him in that he ceases his exclusiveness, and that he cease exploiting the world.

For it is true that society is helpless before the well organized extortions of certain financial groups. The international Jew, this grasper and wielder of world control, rules not because he is rich, but because in a most marked degree, he possesses the commercial and masterful genius of his race, and avails himself of a racial loyalty and solidarity the like of which exists in no other human race. In other words, transfer today the world control of the International Jew to the hands of the highest commercially talented group of non-Jews, and the whole fabric of world control would eventually fall to pieces, because the non-Jew lacks  a certain quality, – human , natural or acquired – that the Jew possesses. This, of course, the modern Jew denies. Another fact which emerges is that these International Jews are not notably religious.

In trade, the Jew is naturally quicker than most other races. For centuries, the Jews were a nation keen in trade. The Jew went after trade, pursued it, and persuaded it. He was the originator of a “quick turnover and small profits”; he originated the “installment plan”. The one state of affairs he could not endure was for business to be at a standstill, and to start moving it he would do anything. It was as easy as child’s play to connect this energy with dishonesty.

 The Jew has shown the same ability ever since. This power of analyzing the money currents amounts to an instinct. His establishment in one country represents another base from which members of his race could operate.

All Jewish trading communities had relations, and as these trading communities increased in wealth, prestige and power – they formed relations with governments in the countries where they operated. They simply put more power into the central command wherever it might be located – be it in Spain, Poland, Holland, Frankfurt, London, or Paris. And back from the central command flowed information of an invaluable nature and assistance, wherever and whenever needed. It is not difficult to understand how, under such a condition, that the nation that did not deal kindly to the Jews was made to suffer; and that the nation that yielded to them their fullest desires, was favored by them. And many nations have been made to feel their wrath.

 This system exists in far greater power today. International finance, which was mostly in control of the Jews (and the Rothschilds in particular), as the money brokers of the world, was on top of business, and directing the political destinies of many nations. The history of the Jews is one of wandering amongst them all. Considering living individuals only, there is no other race that has lived in so many places as the Jews. They have a clearer world-sense than any other peoples, because the world has been their path. And they think in world terms more than any other group. It has been said that GOD had cursed them so, that “their soles shall have no rest”.

The Crown & the City

Nathan  Rothschild once said “I care not what puppet is placed on the throne of England to rule the British Empire on which the sun never sets. The man that controls Britain’s money supply controls the British Empire, and I control the British money supply.”

Many years later his son, Lionel was elected to Parliament, and refused to take the oath on the bible. This happened 3 times, and on the last occasion, he was allowed to take the oath on the Talmud. But in the process, the Queen of England, made comments about the presumptuous Rothschilds. Lionel replied to her with these threatening words: “If you do not agree to a Jew becoming a Member of Parliament, then know this – right now Britain is ruled under a monarchy system. I can put my weight behind the republican forces in the country, and soon we can do away with the royal family and your monarchy system”. This shut her up, and the entire royal family got the message.

The issue is not the people of the British Isles, who have been as much the victims of empire as anyone. The issue is the “Brutish Empire,” the apparatus of Crown-chartered institutions, including the City of London and its offshore banks, insurance companies, shipping lines, and trading companies; the propaganda apparatus; and the penetration of Wall Street and Boston, where leading families, made their fortunes as junior partners of the British East India Company in the opium trade, dating back to the clipper ship era of the 18th and 19th centuries.

 When people think of England, such terms as “Great Britain “, the “Queen”, the “City of London”, and the “British Empire” come to mind, and blend together into an indistinguishable blur. They are generally looked upon as being synonymous. It is important to understand that two separate empires were operating under the guise of the British Empire. One was the Crown Empire, and the other was the British Empire. When people hear of the “City”, they think of London.

 “The City of London” is a privately-owned corporation, or sovereign state occupying 677 acres located right in the heart of the Greater London area. The “Crown” is a committee of 12 men who rule the independent state known as the “City of London”. The “City” is not part of England, and is not under the rule of the British parliament. Like the Vatican in Rome,, it is a separate and independent state.

 History clearly shows that the British government is a slave to this invisible power centered in the “City”. Prime Ministers dance to that tune on command. They have no power and authority. In spite of all the outward show, they are mere pawns in the game played by the Rothschild family and its allies.

 When Britain was thrown out of the Western Hemisphere – after being defeated in the 1812 War against the US, it then concentrated on acquiring colonies elsewhere, mainly in Africa and Asia. Al the colonies that were white, were under the authority of the British Empire, such as South Africa, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. All the other colonies of the British Empire, mainly the non-white nations- were all Crown colonies. The British Parliament had no authority over them. The Crown’s representative in such areas held all the authority over its peoples, including British citizens.

As the Crown also controlled the British Government, there was no problem getting the British taxpayer to pay for naval and military forces to maintain the Crown’s supremacy. Any revolts were met with terrible retribution by the British navy at no cost to the Crown who reaped fantastic profits. This was not British commerce or British wealth, and the average Briton became poorer. It was “The Crown’s” commerce, and “The Crown’s” wealth.

The International Bankers of the City of London today control much the available resources of the world at any moment. “The Crown of the City” still controls their former colonies, financially and materially, only today the United Nations uses American military forces supplemented by the forces of other nations and paid for by the taxpayers of member nations. And today they control the politics and economies of South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and the nations of the British Commonwealth.

The City is the financial hub of the world. 

It is here that the Rothschilds have their base of operations and their centrality of control:

  • The Central Bank of England (controlled by the Rothschilds) is located in The City
  • All major British banks have their main offices in The City
  • 385 foreign banks are located in The City
  • 70 banks from the United States are located in The City
  • The London Stock Exchange is located in The City
  • Lloyd’s of London is located in The City
  • The Baltic Exchange (shipping contracts) is located in The City
  • Fleet Street (newspapers & publishing) is located in The City
  • The London Metal Exchange is located in The City
  • The London Commodity Exchange (trading rubber, wool, sugar, coffee) is located in The City
  • The daily price of gold is set at the offices of N.M. Rothschild & Sons, in the City

Every year a Lord Mayor is elected as monarch of The City.

The British Parliament does not make a move without consulting the Lord Mayor of The City. For here in the heart of London, are grouped together Britain’s financial institutions dominated by the Rothschild-controlled Central Bank of England. The Rothschilds have traditionally chosen the Lord Mayor since 1820. Who is the present day Lord Mayor of The City? Only the Rothschilds’ know for sure…

The bulwark of the British financial oligarchy lies in its ageless and self-perpetuating nature, its long-range planning, and its facility to outwait and break the patience of its opponents. The transient and temporary statesmen of Europe and Britain, who have attempted to curb this monstrosity, have all been defeated by their limited tenure in office. Obliged to show action and results in a short span of years, they have been outwaited, deluged with irritants and difficulties, and eventually obliged to temporize and retreat. There are few who have opposed them without coming to a disgraceful end, but many who served them well, have profited well.

The Rothschild Family Tree

Let us summarize the five branches. As noted in Figure 1, the five brothers branched out to the 5 major capitals of Europe. The eldest, Amschel stayed in Frankfurt. This branch ended as no sons were produced, and the house eventually closed down in 1902.

The Italian branch headed by Karl, or Kalmann, also closed down, as no sons were produced.

The Austrian branch shut down in 1939, when Hitler invaded Austria, at the onset of World War 2.

 That left the two existing branches – London and Paris. Of these, the Paris branch is by far wealthier than the British branch. The daughters of the other 3 branches inter-married with the sons of the other two branches, with the majority of the girls marrying the boys of the Paris branch. And they brought the dowries with them, thus strengthening the French branch, financially.

 Therefore, we find today that the British and the French branch work closely together; with the British branch being in a dominating position. Thus, we find that France is accorded the “junior partner” to Britain in global geopolitics.

 Every head of state of these two countries are beholden to the family. The Rothschild grip on Anglo-French politics is the tightest in the world.

It is my personal opinion that the last generation –the 7th – will be the end of the line. The time of their rule will come to an end, when the Middle East

blows up, and the subsequent wars in the region will bring about the coming of the Imam Mahdi, followed by Dajjal, or the anti-Christ, and eventually the return to earth of the Prophet Jesus –pbuh.

  Our next article will encompass the story of the family between 1897 and 1948, when the family gave birth to the State of Israel.

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