The Rise of the House of Rothschild Part 4 (of a 6 Part Series): 1870 – 1890

The History of the Khazar Jews

 The Jews of our time fall into two categories: Sephardim and Ashkhenazi. The Sephardim are the Jews who can trace their lineage back to Palestine, and Moorish Spain. In 1493/4, they were expelled from Spain, and re-settled in various Mediterranean countries and Western Europe. Today, the Sephardic number just over 2 million, while the Ashkhenazi number around 18-20 million. Thus, the Ashkhenazi comprise roughly 90% of today’s Jewish population.

 The word Ashkhenazi is derived from the word Ashkhenas – who was the son of Gomer, and grandson of Japhet, the son of the Prophet Noah. Ashkhenas was the nephew of Magog, of the Gog and Magog tribe.

 In the region between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea lies the Caucasus mountain region. It was occupied by a tribe known as the Khazars.

 Between 500 and 900 AD, the Khazars were under pressure from the Byzantine army in the west and Islam in the south.  The leader of the Khazars was the Kagan. To forestall accepting tutelage under either Christianity or Islam, the Kagan converted to Judaism, in 891. While Islam was forging northwards, a second force was invading Khazaria from the north. These were the Vikings from the Scandinavian countries. The Vikings attacked Europe through two fronts- one going to England and France, while the second front was into the region that became Russia.

 They would come in a fleet of several hundred ships on the rivers Volga, Dom, Dnieper, and enter the Black and the Caspian Seas, raiding Byzantine, Muslim and Khazar lands. They were fearsome fighters. The Khazars called these people “the rowers”, or “The Rus”. Most of these Vikings eventually settled down in southern Russia between the 8th and 12th centuries. These descendants eventually formed a homeland, and called it Russia – or the “land of the rowers”. These Rus eventually converted to Byzantine Christianity – that is Orthodox Christianity, thus insuring Russian cultural dependency of both Europe and the Muslim world.

 Russia and Byzantine forged an alliance, and together they took on the Khazars. The Khazars were defeated in 965 – leading to the decline of the Khazar Kingdom. By the middle of the 13th century, the remnants were wiped out by the Mongol invasions. But before and after the Mongol invasions, the Khazars began migrating west, helping to build up the Jewish centers of Eastern Europe. Here then, we have the cradle of the largest and dominant part of Jewry. A large part of these settled in Eastern Europe, mainly in the region that now comprises Poland, Lithuania, and Hungary. In fact, the Khazar Jews took part in the founding of Poland, in 1368.

 Ethnically, although the two tribes were “miles apart”, they had at least two important formative factors in common. Each lived at the cross-roads of major trading routes connecting east and west, and north and south. This pre-disposed them to become traders and enterprising travelers. But at the same time, their exclusive religion fostered a tendency to keep to themselves, and establish their own communities and self-imposed ghettoes in whatever town or country they settled in. This same combination of “wanderlust”, and ghetto mentality, reinforced by messianic hopes, Talmudic doctrine, and “chosen race” pride, both the Sephardic and Khazar Jews shared; even though the Khazars traced their lineage to Japhet, and not to Sham- whose descendants became the Semitic peoples of  Palestine and surrounds.

In 1492, the Christians re-conquered Spain, and expelled the Muslims and the Jews. Many Jews were given a choice-either convert to Christianity, or be expelled without taking any valuables. The descendants of those Jews that forcibly converted to Christianity became known as the Jesuits, confirming that their conversion to Christianity was a sham. These Sephardic Jews suffered three stages that reduced their overall population. Had these three things not happened, then it was possible that the Jewish population today would be comprised of equal numbers of both Sephardic and Ashkhenazi Jews.

 The first was when the Muslims of North Africa invaded Spain in the 8th century. Many Jews followed them into Spain, became administrators, Court advisors, and eventually became leading financiers in the Iberian Peninsula. The Talmudic Government relocated to Spain not long after the Muslim conquest of Spain. From 800 to 1500, the Sephardic Jews moved into Spain and from there to various western European nations. Due to their business acumen, many of these Jews were invited by the kings of these various countries, as Jewish capital and enterprise were needed. The tale of Western Europe always starts with a honeymoon, and ends in divorce and bloodshed. In the beginning, the Jews are pampered with special charters, privy leges and favors. After accumulating great wealth through high interest rates, their influence on public affairs fed a growing resentment of debtors from all classes, which, in turn, led to rumblings of discontent, culminating in violent outbreaks, and expulsion.

 The second thing that reduced the Sephardic population was the Crusades. From the first Crusade in 1096, many Jewish communities were massacred, under the belief that the Jews were responsible for the death of the Prophet Jesus. The third catastrophe was the Black Death which, between 1348 and 1350, killed off a third of Europe’s population. The decimated populations did not reach the pre-plague levels until 200 years later. Many Christians blamed the Jews for the plague, resulting in even more Jews being killed by the Christian mobs. As for the Jews who had been exposed to the two-fold attack of rats and men, only a fraction survived.

 When the Jews were expelled from Spain, the Talmudic government also left Spain – and moved into Poland!! Their new headquarters was now in the midst of the Khazar Jews. These Jews were content to be led by the Talmudic Government, and its rabbinical doctrines. This condition prevailed from 1495 till 1772 – all the while mentally moulding these Khazars for their messianic mission soon to unfold. In 1772, the Polish parliament could not get a vote passed, and the Polish Kingdom broke up into two parts – with the eastern part being taken over by Russia.

 There was a centuries-long enmity between the Russians and the Khazars.  Remember the Viking invasions of Khazaria, and the Rus! Not being comfortable living under Russian rule, the Talmudic Government relocated to Frankfurt shortly after the breakup of Poland. Not long after settling in Frankfurt, the now infamous meeting took place in Frankfurt, on May 1, 1773, and from which emerged a set of papers documenting a plan for Jewish rule of the world. This plan we know today as the Protocols of Zion.

It was at this point that a fusion between the two tribes took place. A point to note is that the Sephardic Jews speak Hebrew, while the Ashkhenazi Jews speak Yiddish.


 The Russian Christian Empire was a powerful bulwark preventing the spread of subversive doctrines.  That this Empire must be attacked and overthrown was a foregone conclusion, as far as the Rothschilds were concerned. As Russia was a huge land power, there was no other force that could fight Russia and win without destroying themselves in the process. The best way of destroying Russia was from within.

 The invasion of Russia in 1812 by Napoleon shook Russia to its core, even though it broke Napoleon’s back. The Russian Emperor, Alexander set about the task of organizing a recovery program. In the hope that he would bring about a united recovery throughout the Russian Empire, he relaxed many of the restrictions which had been imposed on the Jews who were living in the Pale of Settlement (the area of Poland taken over by Russia).  Special concessions were made to the Jews; they were invited to merge themselves into the Russian way of life.

 By the time Nicholas 1 succeeded Alexander 1 in 1825, the Khazar Jews had made rapid inroads into the Russian economy. He viewed with alarm and great displeasure that the Jew was not prepared to drop their special culture – but were oppressing – financially and economically – the citizens of Russia.

 In order to assimilate the Jews into Russian society, Nicholas 1, in 1834, made it compulsory for all Jewish children to attend school. The net result of this experiment did not turn out as expected. Education for non-Jewish children was not compulsory, resulting in the Jews becoming the best educated segment in Russia. Many Jews graduated from school, and entered university. They found themselves severely handicapped after graduation when seeking employment. To correct this injustice, Alexander 2nd, who had succeeded Nicholas 1 in 1855, ruled that all Jewish graduates be given government jobs. By 1879, the Jewish professional classes were allowed to reside and work anywhere in Russia.

The benevolent rule of Alexander was upsetting the claims of the Talmudic/Illuminati revolutionaries that “ – – that much needed reforms can only be brought about speedily by revolutionary action”. The Jewish terrorist groups went on a rampage. In 1868 they made the first attempt on Alexander 2nd. They tried a 2nd time in 1879, and finally succeeded in 1881 through the Jewess, Hesia Helfman.

Alexander’s assassination caused widespread resentment which resulted in outbreaks of violence against the Jews. In response the Russian government passed the May Laws of 1882. The Rothschilds took great offence at the anti-Jewish clauses of this Law, which allocated proportional places in universities and government jobs. In other words, if the Jewish population numbered 2 % of Russia’s population, then 2% of university places and government jobs they would get, and nothing more. This was a blow to the educated Russian Jews, because they were taking up to 25% of university places and government jobs.  An official protest was made to the new Tsar by a Jewish delegation headed by the Rothschild’s Russian agent, Baron Gunzberg, on May 23. Loans that were in mid-negotiations were called off by the Rothschilds. Alexander 3rd promised an investigation into the whole matter concerning the conflict between the Jews and the Russians.

 A report was issued on September 3rd, 1882, and the following is a part of it: “The conduct of Jews in business matters has brought about the sad condition of the Christian population. During the last 20 years, the Jews have possessed themselves of all trade, business and agriculture – with few exceptions. They have, as a body, devoted their attention to defrauding the Russian people by their wiles. The government has adopted stringent measures to put an end to oppression as practiced by the Jews on other people and to rid the country of their malpractices, which were, as is well known, the original cause of the anti-Jewish agitations”.

After Gunzberg’s deputation failed to have the May Laws rescinded, the Rothschilds imposed economic and financial sanctions on Russia, almost reducing the nation to bankruptcy. An open, but undeclared war existed between Russia and the Rothschilds. At this point, the family had decided to topple the Tsar, through a revolution.

 Planning for the revolution was given to Jacob Schiff of Kuhn Loeb in New York- a Rothschild firm. The Schiff family were neighbors of the Rothschilds in the Frankfurt’s Jewish ghetto. Beginning in the late 1880s, Russia was on the defensive both internally and externally. In addition to causing serious labor troubles and misunderstandings between all levels of Russian society, the Jews rubbed the sore of religious bigotry until it developed into a festering boil. This boil was brought to a head by the hot application of wholesale murders and assassination.

 In 1901, Education Minister Bobolepov was assassinated; this was the answer to Jewish resentment against the additional clauses of the May Laws.  In 1902, Interior Minister Sipyagin was assassinated. This emphasized Jewish resentment against the May Law clause which prohibited the Jews from living outside the Pale of Settlement.

 In 1903, it was the turn of Bogdanovich, Governor of Ufa; in 1903, the Russian Prime Minister’s turn came; in 1905, Grand Duke Sergius, the Tsar’s uncle was assassinated.

Japan Attacks Russia

 After the Japanese-Chinese “Yellow War’ of 1894, Chinese nationalist resentment grew rapidly. The Rothschilds knew this, but for once their hands were full, and they could not muster up support from other nations.  No one was willing to help them out of their China problems. So, in 1897, a very select meeting was hosted in London by the family, and nine nations and its ruling class were invited. They were all cut in for a share of the action in China.

Russia’s reward was a warm water port on the Yellow Sea – Port Arthur. It was leased to Russia by Li Hung Chang, the front man for the Rothschild’s agent in China-the Sassoons.  Over the next 6 years, Russia spent $300 million upgrading and improving the port.

 By 1900, a full-scale uprising had broken out in China; this was called the “Boxer Revolution”. The Chinese nationalists were once more fighting the Western powers to try and throw off the yoke of slavery imposed by the financial oligarchy. Once again, the nationalists were defeated, and China’s status quo was restored as the sole province of international finance.

 To apply further pressure on Russia, Britain and Japan signed a treaty in January 1902. The plan was to evict Russia from Port Arthur. The Japanese war machine was rapidly built up with Rothschild funding and arms. In July 1903, the Japanese demanded that Russia vacate the Kwantung Peninsula, of which Port Arthur was the prize. When Russia refused, Japan attacked and sank the Russian fleet, and put troops ashore in February 1904.

 Although the Russians outnumbered the Japanese, they were defeated. This was due to the chaos and confusion caused by British Intelligence, which sabotaged transport and communication lines in the Far East and Siberia, resulting in the Russian army to run short of supplies and reinforcements. Immediately thereafter, internal conditions became ideal to start a revolution.

Although the 1905 revolution failed in its objectives for the Rothschilds, it at least resulted in producing Russia’s first parliament – the Duma, with Stolypin as its first Prime Minister. The economic strategy of Russia was changed, and the economy boomed. He was assassinated in September 1911 by a Jewish lawyer. Between 1907 and 1911, 6.2 million peasants, out of 16 million, became landowners. This was the reason the Rothschilds had him killed. Had this policy continued, the chances of the Rothschilds successfully toppling the Tsar would have failed.

 Underground revolutionary activity continued with 3 ministers in a row assassinated. Many of the assassins were young Jews who also carried out hundreds of murders of policemen, and bank robberies to fund these terror activities. These crimes, in turn, gave rise to a succession of anti-Jewish activities. It would be another 13 years before the Rothschilds succeeded in toppling the Tsar of Russia, in the Bolshevik Revolution, in 1917/18.

 We now move onto discussing the family’s position in Germany.


During the 1850s, the Austrian branch of the Rothschilds decided to finance the activities of a bright and ambitious young count, Otto von Bismarck. With Rothschild backing Bismarck seized control of Prussia, the largest of the small German states. Bismarck set about expanding his domain. In 1866, Bismarck eliminated Austrian influence over Prussia by defeating the Austrians. And in 1870, Bismarck defeated the French. In January 1871, King William was formally proclaimed as the Emperor of the new German Empire – uniting 4 kingdoms and 21 principalities. Bismarck became Germany’s first Chancellor.

 Laws were passed that emancipated the Jews of Germany. The Jews enjoyed civil liberties throughout the new Germany.

 The financial reparations of 5 billion francs from the war with France proved a powerful stimulant to the German economy. Many new banks such as Deutsche Bank and Dresdner Bank were formed, with Jews in leading positions. It was a giddy time, as Jews fathomed the economic potential of a unified German economy. Jews excelled in railroads, the media, electrical companies and department stores. By 1873, the speculative boom had turned into a bust. As German banks were pre-dominantly Jewish, many ruined investors blamed the Jews for the economic collapse.

 Then in 1875, the Rothschilds formed Germany’s central bank-the Reichsbank, controlled by their man, Moritz Warburg. As the Rothschilds consolidated control over the economy via the Reichsbank, the people revolted against this form of economic slavery. As their financial persecutors were Jewish, so this revolt assumed an anti-Jewish slant.  The term “anti-Semite” first appeared in a Jewish newspaper in Hamburg. This city was incorporated into the German Republic in 1888, and it soon became Germany’s most important city and port.

 The German economy boomed in coal and steel production, in transatlantic shipping, and in the chemicals industries. The peaks of German business and finance were controlled by the Jews; starting with the central bank, then onto the 6 major banks, followed by the shipping, electrical and industrial companies. Sitting above it all was the family’s German agents – the Warburg family. Just as the Rothschilds inter-married, so did the Warburgs. Two important marriages were to Baron Gunzberg- the Rothschild’s Russian agent. The other was of Felix Warburg to the daughter of Jacob Schiff, of Kuhn Loeb – Rothschild’s American agent.

 If the Rothschilds are the first–tier German Jews, amongst the leaders of the second-tier German Jews were the Warburgs. To give an example of the power of the Warburgs, one brother Paul Warburg became the head of America’s first central bank on its formation in 1913-the US Federal Reserve Bank; while another brother Max was the financial head in Germany as well as head of German Intelligence.

 The Rothschilds were German Jews, and their most trusted allies in the world of finance and politics were German Jews. As the family rose to greater heights in the 19th century, effective management became a problem. What better place to recruit such talent than in your own backyard. As their empire increased in size, they tended to drag along their network of German Jews. Soon, the most delicate missions in the world of finance and politics were entrusted to these German Jews.

 In America, the German Jew, Jacob Schiff, was the undisputed master of finance. In Sweden it was the Wallenberg family. In the gold and diamond fields of South Africa, it was German Jews such as Barney Barnato, the Albu brothers, Werner & Beit, Hirschon, and lastly, the Oppenheimers.

 With the death of Cecil John Rhodes in 1902, South Africa was considered too important to be left in the hands of non-Jews. So, Ernest Oppenheimer was sent to South Africa as Cecil John Rhodes replacement. At the time of Ernest Oppenheimer’s birth, the family lived in Friesburg, a suburb of Frankfurt- but he and his brothers moved to London in 1896, to work in their cousin’s diamond sorting business.

In 1886, Mayer Carl Rothschild died in Frankfurt. Fifteen years later his brother Willy Carl died in 1901. With his death the Frankfurt house was closed down, and the Warburgs took over the German portfolio. In 1995, the family re-opened an office in Frankfurt, in a new, unified Germany, once again.  Germany remained within the Rothschild orbit until the advent of Adolf Hitler. With the American victory, Germany came under Rockefeller control from 1945 onward.


In the mid-14th-century, the Black Death Plague killed about 40% of Egypt’s population, weakening it and made it vulnerable to the  conquest of Egypt by the Ottoman Turks in 1517, after which it became a province of the Ottoman Empire.. After the 16th century, the Ottoman invasion pushed the Egyptian system into decline.  The weakening of the economic system combined with the effects of plague left Egypt vulnerable to foreign invasion. Portuguese traders took over their trade. Egypt suffered six famines between 1687 and 1731. The 1784 famine cost it roughly one-sixth of its population.

The brief French invasion of Egypt led by Napoleon Bonaparte began in 1798. The expulsion of the French in 1801 by Ottoman, Mamluk, and British forces was followed by four years of anarchy in which Ottomans, Mamluks, and Albanians — who were nominally in the service of the Ottomans – wrestled for power. Out of this chaos, the commander of the Albanian regiment, Muhammad Ali emerged as a dominant figure and in 1805 was acknowledged by the Sultan in Istanbul as his viceroy in Egypt; the title implied subordination to the Sultan but this was in fact a polite fiction: Ottoman power in Egypt was finished and Muhammad Ali, an ambitious and able leader, established a dynasty that was to rule Egypt until the revolution of 1952. In later years, the dynasty became a British puppet.

His primary focus was military: he annexed Northern Sudan (1820–1824), Syria (1833), and parts of Arabia and Anatolia; but in 1841 the European powers, fearful lest he topple the Ottoman Empire itself, forced him to return most of his conquests to the Ottomans, but he kept the Sudan and his title to Egypt was made hereditary. A more lasting result of his military ambition is that it required him to modernize the country. Eager to adopt the military (and therefore industrial) techniques of the great powers, he sent students to the West and invited training missions to Egypt. He built industries, a system of canals for irrigation and transport, and reformed the civil service.

The introduction in 1820 of long-staple cotton, the Egyptian variety of which became notable, transformed its agriculture into a cash-crop monoculture before the end of the century. The social effects of this were enormous: land ownership became concentrated and many foreigners arrived, shifting production towards international markets.

 Muhammad Ali was succeeded briefly by his descendants. In 1863, a grandson, Ismail became the ruler. He embarked on a massive building program aimed at modernising his country. His most ambitious undertaking was the construction of the Suez Canal. The brain child of a French engineer, the canal would cut the time to travel from England to India by half, but he spent beyond his means. The Suez Canal was completed in 1869. Britain had initially opposed the project, but changed their minds once it had opened, and the toll fesses on ships were raised. The cost of this and other projects had two effects: it led to enormous debt to European banks, and caused popular discontent because of the onerous taxation it required.

 Disraeli and Lionel Rothschild used to discuss often the Egyptian situation, during their intimate weekend meetings. They frequently tried to buy the half share from the French engineer who had built it, de Lesseps, but were rebuffed every time.

 In the meantime, Ismail was caught in a financial bind. Desperate for cash, he attempted to mortgage his one remaining asset-his 44% share in the Suez Canal Company. In early November 1875, he approached French bankers, but the terms of the loan were harsh. News reached Lionel Rothschild in London. They found out that Ismail was not happy with the French offer, and was desperate to sell his share by the end of the moth.  At the last minute, Lionel Rothschild stepped in and advanced 4 million pounds to the British government to buy out Ismail’s share. Lionel made a commission of 2.5%, with an interest rate of 5% on the loan. The deal was pulled off with very little time to spare, and London beat out the French consortium that finally agreed to Ismail’s terms.

 Now that the Rothschilds had got a “toe-hold” in Egypt, they were not going to relinquish it; rather they would increase their control over Egypt, which was the key to control of the Middle East, and the Rothschild ultimate prize – Jerusalem. They had to neutralize Turkey if they wanted to achieve greater control over Egypt. And Russia was going to be used to weaken Turkey. Over the next year, the British advanced more loans to Ismail. Then Egypt’s economy collapsed under the heavy debt load. Egyptian government finances were in such a mess by 1876, that Ismail’s creditors had forced him to submit control of the economy to an Anglo-French committee (in essence, the 2 Rothschild banks).

 Both banks lent 8.5 Million pounds to Egypt, and the family sent two of its bank staff to oversee the financial administration of Egypt. The loan was a largely fictitious one, as it was used to pay off the arrears on previous loans. No new money came into the country.

Local dissatisfaction with Ismail and with European intrusion led to the formation of the first nationalist groupings in 1879, with Ahmad Urabi a prominent figure. In 1882 he became head of a nationalist-dominated ministry committed to democratic reforms including parliamentary control of the budget.  Ismail made a bid to harness this nationalism to his own ambition. He dismissed the Rothschild overseers, and resumed complete control. The family pressured their respective governments to bring pressure on Ismail’s boss-the Turkish Sultan, who dismissed Ismail, and appointed his son Tewfik. The Anglo-French Dual Control was re-established.  The installation of Tewfik aroused even greater anger amongst the Egyptian nationalists who were opposed to all foreign influence. The country rapidly became ungovernable. In 1881, the Egyptian army officer, Ahmed ‘Urabi (then known in English as Arabi Pasha), mutinied and initiated a coup against Tewfik. Fearing a reduction of their control, and a loss on their loans, the Rothschilds put pressure on the British and French governments,, which began a military intervention into Egypt.

 On 20 May 1882, British and French warships arrived off the coast of Alexandria. On 11 June, an anti-Christian riot occurred in Alexandria that killed 50 Europeans. Colonel ‘Urabi ordered his forces to put down the riot, but Europeans fled the city and ‘Urabi’s army began fortifying the town. A British ultimatum was rejected and its warships began a 10½-hour bombardment of Alexandria on 11 July 1882.

  A joint Anglo-French fleet demolished the Egyptian fleet in August. A month later Britain and France began, bombarding Alexandria and crushing the Egyptian army at the battle of Tel el-Kebir. They reinstalled Ismail’s 27-year old son Tewfik as figurehead of a de facto British protectorate

The reasons why the British government sent a fleet of ships to the coast of Alexandria was motivated by protecting the interests of British bondholders with investments in Egypt. The British investments in Egypt grew massively leading into the 1880s, partially as a result of the Khedive’s debt from construction of the Suez Canal, as well as the close links that existed between the British government and the economic sector.

 The Rothschilds were thrilled at this victory. They defeated the nationalists, and re-gained control of Egypt, and the Suez Canal. In 1889, the 2 houses jointly organized another loan of 9.5 million pounds- ostensibly to “put the Egyptian government back on its feet”.  The family now had a “body-hold” over Egypt. And were forced to evacuate Egypt in 1956, under pressure from Washington and the Rockefellers.

The Ottoman Empire

The Crimean War was a military conflict fought from October 1853 to February 1856 in which the Russian Empire lost to an alliance made up of the Ottoman Empire, France, Britain and Sardinia. The immediate cause of the war involved the rights of Christian minorities in the Holy Land, which was a part of the Ottoman Empire. The French promoted the rights of Roman Catholics, while Russia promoted those of the Eastern Orthodox Church. The longer-term causes involved the decline of the Ottoman Empire and the unwillingness of Britain and France to allow Russia to gain territory and power at the Ottoman Empire’s expense. 

Nicholas issued an ultimatum that the Orthodox subjects of the Ottoman Empire be placed under his protection. Britain attempted to mediate and arranged a compromise that Nicholas agreed to. When the Ottomans demanded changes to the agreement, Nicholas recanted and prepared for war. Having obtained promises of support from France and Britain, the Ottomans declared war on Russia in October 1853.

The war started in the Balkans in July 1853, fearing an Ottoman collapse, France and Britain rushed forces to Gallipoli. Frustrated by the wasted effort, the allied force decided to attack Russia’s main naval base in the Black Sea at Sevastopol on the Crimean peninsula. Sevastopol fell after eleven months, and neutral countries began to join the Allied cause. Isolated and facing a bleak prospect of invasion from the west if the war continued, Russia sued for peace in March 1856

The Crimean War was one of the first conflicts in which the military used modern technologies such as explosive naval shells, railways, and telegraphs. The Crimean War proved to be the moment of truth for Russia. The humiliation forced Russia’s educated elites to identify the Empire’s problems and to recognize the need for fundamental reforms. They saw rapid modernization of the country as the sole way of it remaining a European power.

 Russia, at the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian war denounced the Treaty of 1856, and rebuilt her Black Sea fleet, and fortifications, and prepared to resume her offensive against Turkey. Besides religious causes, the main reason for Russia’s advanced south was to acquire an all-round –a-year port. Russia’s two main ports could only be used in summer, as they became frozen in winter. Russia could only move south to acquire such ports. The first direction was towards the Black Sea, and regaining control of Crimea. The second direction was to the Indian Ocean, via Afghanistan or Iran.

 Regarding the second direction, Russia invaded Turkmenistan up to the borders of Iran, Afghanistan and India. In this campaign, Russia defeated the Khan of Khiva in April 1873, the Turkomans in October 1873, and the Khan of Khokand in June 1875. Then, Russia turned to the Balkans-where Russian Intelligence incited the peasants of the Turkish province of Bosnia-Herzegovina in July 1875, followed by Montenegro and Serbia in 1876, Bulgaria and Romania in 1877.

In April 1877, Russia invaded European Turkey. Everyone expected an easy victory over the decadent Ottoman Army. They were wrong. The Turks fought with frenzied determination and losses were immense on both sides, the conduct of the war was exceedingly brutal. The Russian advance was halted shortly thereafter, and by the time they arrived at the gates of Constantinople, it lacked the momentum for further conquest. In March 1878, Russia forced upon Turkey the humiliating Treaty of San Stefano, but had very little chance of making it stick.

British Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli deliberately did not come to Turkey’s assistance. Both the Ottoman and Russian Empires were Britain’s last geopolitical rivals left to eliminate on the Eurasian landmass. Thus, Britain preferred her rivals to fight each another, and weaken themselves even more. When Britain charged Russia with attacking the integrity of the Ottoman Empire, she declared she would remain neutral as long as British interests were not attacked. These were defined as follows; the navigation of the Suez Canal must not be blocked, Egypt must not be attacked or occupied, Constantinople must not pass into any other hands than those of its present possessors, and finally the existing arrangements concerning navigation of the Bosporus and Dardanelles must not be changed. All of these were designed to block Russia’s entry into the Mediterranean. Russia rejected all these terms. 

 As Britain was unable to oppose Russia by force, she threatened Russia through their Austrian government. When British reserves were called out, war-weary Russia was obliged to accept new terms, and the Treaty of Berlin was signed in July 1878. This treaty deprived Russia of any territorial gain. Control over the Balkans was removed from Russian influence. Bosnia-Herzegovina was given to Austria for her support of Britain. Britain then seized Cyprus in order to create a base to halt any further designs by Russia in the Mediterranean. This new “balance-of-power” alignment left Russia helpless in Europe thereafter.

 The Rothschilds now focused their attention on their people-the Jews, as per the mandate of the Levitical/Talmudic doctrine, of making Jerusalem the capital of the world. But, first they had to acquire Palestine by any means possible. And, this story continues into the next article. Stay tuned, folks!!

2 thoughts on “The Rise of the House of Rothschild Part 4 (of a 6 Part Series): 1870 – 1890

  1. If Russians are descendants of Scandinavian Vikings as this article points out, why is Russian and all other slavic languages are so different from Svandinavian ones? And why would they call themselves by the name their enemies gave them?

    1. The Vikings invaded southern Russia in the 9th century. About 3 centuries later, the first Russian state was founded in Kiev. Over the next few centuries, the Russian language developed.

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