The Rise of the House of Rothschild Part 2 (of a 6 Part Series): 1830 – 1870

For the next 50 years, the Rothschilds set about conquering the economic, financial and political powers of all the European states, as well as the USA, Russia, India, China, Japan and the Ottoman Empire. They acted as bankers to many governments and various crowned heads.

 Europe remained their principal sphere of activity. In 1827, a fifth bank was set up in Italy, and Karl became the last of the Frankfurt Five to leave his home and established himself in a foreign land. Italy, at that time, was a jigsaw puzzle of many small states, and all of it fell under the Austrian Empire. Unrest in Naples forced the Austrians to send in an army for which Austria told the Rothschilds that Naples must pay for the costs of this military expedition. Within months Napal had to ask Karl for more money. Over the next few years, Naples became totally dependent on the family. From dependency to control was but a short step away.

 Endogamy was usual amongst aristocratic and wealthy families in Europe, but no other family was to practice it to the same extent as the Rothschilds. This web of intermarriage had obvious business advantages. It played a vital role in holding together the five banks and maintaining Mayer’s vision of a united financial operation. The next generation of Rothschilds would be Austrians, Germans, French, Italians and British- living in, and identifying with the nations that were often with odds, and sometimes, at war with each other. It would have been easy for the banks to have drifted apart. It remains one of the more remarkable aspects of the Rothschild phenomenon that this did not happen.

 Each house developed its own distinct style and its own business operations and international contacts, but at the same time it kept up daily communications with its sister banks with which it did considerable business. When the need arose, it could combine in a most formidable way. The days had now passed when the family had to control their lifestyle for fear of creating a negative impression. Only the best was now good for the family.

Nathan Takes Over the Bank of England

By 1825, hundreds of banks were established, and many became insolvent when they lost money in rash speculation. A sudden decline in public confidence could trigger a run on gold, creating an economic crisis for Britain, which is what happened in November 1825. The Bank of England’s gold supply had shrunk to a mere 100,000 pounds, and it became clear it would soon run out of that too.

 A plea was made to Nathan to rescue the Bank, thus paving the way for the family’s takeover of the Bank of England, and ultimately, by extension, the British government. Nathan set about supplying the Bank with gold coins from the London and Paris branches. When this did not prove sufficient, Nathan pulled in gold from other countries. The total value of the rescue attempt came to 10 million pounds. It was a mammoth task. The crisis was kept within bounds.

 With this takeover of the Bank of England, and its death-like grip control over British economics and politics, the whole nature of British foreign policy became more sinister, cunning and ruthless. This reflected upon the character of its new Jewish owners with their own hidden agendas.

 The Rothschild Hand in the Founding of Belgium

 In 1830, a new generation of Rothschild bankers began to appear. All of them were specifically trained to follow their fathers and uncles. The family had propelled themselves into a position of immense power and political influence. They were an independent force in the life of Europe, accountable to no one, and reliant on no one. Popular lampoons depicted them as the real rulers of Christendom, before whom monarchs and popes were obliged to prostate themselves in supplication. The family was aware of the responsibilities imposed by their unique position. The first was always to family and business. The second was to their race, and the hidden agenda of the Levite/Talmudic/Illuminati sect.

The family used their position to reduce the harsh treatment meted out to the Jews in Europe, and often had anti-Jewish laws scrapped. But, more often than not, the ruling elite of Europe, disliked the Jews, and this was reflected in legislation and social disabilities. To shake up this equation, the family, in conjunction with the Illuminati network, fostered revolutions throughout Europe in 1830. The German, Austrian and Russian governments were nervous, and wanted to intervene. Armed intervention meant money. Money meant applying to “the five brothers of Europe”.  And the brothers now began applying political strings to their loans.  Salomon in Austria was quite open about this; “These gentlemen should not count upon us unless they decide to follow our line – – – “This comment referred to the leaders of the Belgian uprising against their Dutch masters, reflected a fundamental of Rothschild policy. As for Europe to return to chaos, it could only be done on the family’s dictates and terms.

Belgian Revolution

 Salomon’s firm message to the insurgents had the desired effect. The Belgian revolutionaries, denied money and arms, turned to negotiations, culminating in a treaty sponsored by the family.  In 1833, Belgium became independent. The Rothschilds were ready to help the new kingdom, as James explained bluntly to his agent in Brussels, “Now is the moment of which we could take advantage to make ourselves masters of that country’s finances. The next step will be to establish ourselves on an intimate footing with Belgium’s Finance Minister, to gain his confidence, and to take all Treasury bonds he may offer us”.

The French Revolutionary wars led to Belgium becoming part of France in 1795, bringing the end of the semi-independence of areas which had belonged to the Catholic Church. After the defeat of the French in 1814, a new United Kingdom of the Netherlands was created, which eventually split one more time during the Belgian Revolution of 1830–1839, giving three modern nations, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg. The ports and textile industry of Belgium were important back into the Middle Ages, and modern Belgium was one of the first countries to experience an Industrial Revolution, which brought prosperity in the 19th century.

James takes Control of France

In Paris, the French King, Charles X, assumed an ultra-conservative stance. The French Parliament was controlled by James, and the King feared losing control over his government. In July 1830, the King suspended the constitution, and attempted to restore aristocratic rule. James reacted swiftly.  The citizens of Paris were manipulated into revolt, and fighting broke out between the mob and the King’s troops. It was soon over with the abdication of Charles. James old friend and client Louis Phillippe, popularly called the “citizen King”, was now crowned as the new ruler of France.

   The change of government greatly enhanced the family’s standing in Paris. James was now part of the King’s inner councils and enjoyed unprecedented access to the King. James had even greater influence in Paris than did any of his brothers in their own countries. For example, he got Casimir Perrier appointed Prime Minister in March 1831. Perrier was a fellow banker and friend who had worked for James for many years.

 The House of Rothschild had become immensely more powerful than any financial empire that had ever come before it.  It commanded vast wealth.  It was international. It was independent. Governments were nervous of it because they could not control it. Popular movements hated it because they could not control it.  Constitutionalists hated it because its influence was exercised behind the scenes-covertly.

 Clandestinity was and remained a feature of Rothschild political activity. Seldom were they to be seen engaging in open public debate on important issues. Yet, all the while, they were helping to shape the major events of the day; by granting or withholding funds; by providing statements with an unofficial diplomatic service; by influencing appointments to high office, and by an almost daily intercourse with decision makers. Last, but not least, the family had developed Europe’s best intelligence service, and it gleaned valuable political and business information by acting as couriers for the royal houses of Europe, and its leading statesmen. And, finally, the family’s control of the underworld, via the Talmud/Illuminati network, which was way above freemasonry.

 As bankers the family was pledged to confidentiality. As businessmen, they were wary of rivals. As leading Jews, constantly under attack, they maintained maximum privacy in their dealings with kings and ministers.  Secrecy became an obsession and a family trademark.

 And so it came to pass that France fell into the hands of the Rothschild family, and it has stayed that way right up to the present day. First, it was England that fell into their hands in 1825, followed by France in 1830, and Belgium in 1833. Once a government became dependent on the family, it was caught between a rock and a hard place. Its leaders either listened to the family, or were replaced, through various means. That is why the family preferred a parliamentary system to run the country, rather than a king. It was easier to control.

 In 1836, Nathan passed away. Some say he was poisoned because he allowed his daughter to marry a non-Jew. His son Lionel now took over the British house. James in France now assumed the mantle of leadership of the family, due to the success of the Paris house.

 This was the age of explosive industrial expansion – the Industrial Revolution, and a population shift towards urbanization.  Such developments required finance on a large scale, including infrastructure such as ports, production centers, and an efficient transport system, including the new form of transport-railways. Europe was in a state of peace, and governments had less need of loans.  Between 1832 and 1839, France issued no government loans, and Britain issued one loan. For the Rothschild banks to continue prospering, they would have to switch to the private sector, with its greater risk, and longer-term investments.

  Steam power opened up huge possibilities.  Everywhere in Europe, new mines, steel foundries, railways, textile mills and light industrial complexes were being established – and they all needed financing. Nathan had been wary of speculative investments, which had brought down many banks in England, and declined to involve himself in the industrial sector.  James in Paris was more adventurous. He led his firm into this new area of business, and by a combination of imagination and ruthlessness, proved immensely successful. In France and Austria, the family started their own railway companies. From here, it led to steel plants, coal mines, and so on.

 Nathan had bigger things on his mind – specifically, the India-China trade, whose base was opium. The largest commodity of world trade by 1840 was opium. Besides this, the British Empire was expanding rapidly in all parts of the world, and British Imperialism brought financial opportunities for Nathan.

Emancipation, Revolution & the Birth of Communism

The Rothschilds began to use their financial power to press for legislation to emancipate the Jews of Europe from legislation designed to restrict the Jews from many activities. The Jew, once emancipated, was confronted with a crisis in identity. Do they identify with the Jewish faith first, or with the nation where they are residing? For the first time in 19 centuries, the Jew seemed unable to adapt itself to changed conditions. Unaccustomed as they were after centuries of seclusion to the idea of a full citizenship in a non-Jewish national state, the problems of adjusting completely their religious loyalty to the new political and social status, which they had now won, appeared to them formidable.

Operating under the Talmudic mandate, the Rothschilds were worried about this development. The Talmudic leaders wanted to keep the Jews isolated, and brainwashed. If the Jew was allowed to mix with the Christians, the possibility existed that they would move away from their faith, inter-marry, and merge with the rest of mankind. Were this to happen, this diabolical force would melt away. It was not in the interest of the Talmudists, or the Devil, for this to happen. That was the quandary facing the Rothschilds. And this question would dog them till the present time.

 What had happened was this: the Jew was at the bottom of the social ladder. By using the knowledge of man’s weakness (received from the Devil), and harnessing it to the power of gold, secret societies were formed to topple existing power structures and replacing it with that controlled by Jewish finance. This new arrangement gave them the leverage to free European Jewry from the blatant and not so blatant forms of oppression. This was called emancipation.

 Once the Jew became equal to the citizen of Europe, he then proceeded further up the ladder, using the Illuminati organization to mobilize the masses. For what purpose? So that the current rulers of Europe – mainly the monarchy – were forced by the threat of revolution from below to yield ever more authority to the Rothschilds.

 The concessions made by the monarchs left the Rothschilds far from satisfied, so, from 1830 on, discontent was stroked by the family all across Europe. Into this atmosphere, those in power became even more nervous about the possibility of revolution. Informers, secret agents, and violence were frequently used to suppress these revolts. In France, Freemasonry continued to serve as the cloak used by the Rothschild/Talmudic networks – and all of it directed by James in Paris.

The revolutionary arm of the Illuminati was the “League of Virtue” – headed by Adam Weishaupt, who had died in 1830. A battle for his successor took place. Three were contending for the leadership. A Frenchman – Louis Blanc; a Russian Michel Bakunin, and a German – Karl Marx – son of a Rabbi. All three were Jews. These three were given an assignment to produce a new plan, going forward, based on the Talmudic doctrine, and in keeping with the ultimate aims of Jewish finance and the Protocols of Zion. This was in 1844.  Amschel approved the plans of Karl Marx, and in 1846, at a private council of the Illuminati in Frankfurt, this was given the go-ahead.

 In December 1847, it was published and distributed. The plan was called “The Communist Manifesto”. Yes, that’s right. Communism was an invention of the Rothschild family. Even the color of communism is RED!! Red being the symbol of the House of the Red Shield, or Rothschild. Since that time, one finds a close link between Jews and various communist movements around the world.

 Within weeks of publication, revolts occurred all over Germany, Austria, France, Italy and Denmark. The family gave the go-ahead, and the Illuminati went into action. Various secret societies, controlling mobs, were fusing together, coordinating and synchronizing their outbreaks.  This demonstrated world revolution in action, through simultaneous eruptions in various countries. Only one organization at that time had at its disposal the money and the network to make this possible, and that was the Rothschilds.

 All across Europe, many of the family’s obstacles were removed.  Governments fell, and economic and financial competitors went bankrupt. Europe’s most powerful statesman, Metternich, had to flee Vienna in the hope of preserving the Austrian monarchy. In Germany, Berlin was the first to crack. Prussian king Frederick William granted a liberal constitution. In England, Nathan’s sons, Lionel and his brothers actively pushed for Jewish emancipation – working behind the scenes.  In 1840, a Jewish banker David Salomon, was elected to the office of the Sheriff of London. Lionel ran for parliament, and became the first Jewish MP. For Lionel, it was enough  that he succeeded in opening the way for others for, after all, was this not the duty of the Rothschilds as the leaders of world Jewry.

 This, then, was the rationale behind the communist idea, and implementation. It’s a great remover of political obstacles. Created, funded, and controlled by the Rothschilds, it had served them very well, until the year 1989, when its usefulness to the family was over.

The Challenge to Rothschild Power

After the revolutions all across Europe, many changes took place. In Germany, banking houses became more organized and assumed a strong Jewish character. Several German-Jewish families became prominent financiers: families such as the Warburgs, the Bleichroder, Friedlander and Moses Mendelshon. Competition in the banking sector was slowly being eliminated.  This meant that the princes of the 39 duchies that comprised the German-speaking peoples could be financially manipulated into giving up their sovereignty in favor of one big German state – which is what the Rothschilds wanted.

 In Italy, the Pope was constantly borrowing funds from Karl Rothschild. Pressure on the Pope from the family resulted in many oppressive laws and taxes imposed on the Jews being cancelled. A similar approach was used in Italy, like that used in Germany, with the result that Italy became one unified state in 1868.

  In France, Napoleon 3rd became President –NOT KING – of the Republic, in 1848. There would be no more kings in France – James had seen to that. The new government embarked on several massive undertakings, such as rebuilding the center of Paris, laying new railways, reclaiming wastelands, staging the great Paris Exhibition of 1855, along with the industrial expansion that the government wished to encourage. All of this needed vast sums of money. The man singled out to be the leading architect of the new order, and who now became Napoleon’s economic adviser was Achille Fould, a converted Jew, and an old enemy of James. He became Finance Minister in 1848, and was in office for the next 20 years.

 It was he who advised his master “It is absolutely vital that you free yourself from the tutelage of the Rothschilds”. For James, it was a shock to find his influence hijacked by Achille Fould and his bankers, and to find himself excluded from the intimate group of the President’s advisers.

 The terrain over which the combatants contested was over the government’s economic expansion program. Normally, it would have been the Rothschilds and their allies in the leading private banks which provided the funds. But Fould and his backers, the Pereire brothers, Isaac and Emile, wanted to break free of the Rothschilds. The answer was to create a new bank, a people’s bank that would be financed by the savings of the public at large, and directed by the state.

 In November 1852, the Credit Mobilier was established. Headed by the Pereire brothers, it had a capital of 60 million Francs, and shares were available to the public at 500 Francs each. Backed by the state and lending to government consortiums, it could not fail. Citizens all over the country rushed to put their savings into the new bank. New money was challenging old money; this was nothing less than a declaration of financial war. Thus, began the celebrated battle of the banks.

The Pereire Brothers

 From the start it was a struggle in which both sides used whatever weapons came to hand, and it would be a fight to the death. For the Pereire brothers aimed at nothing less than toppling the Rothschilds  from their positions of financial power, and taking control of the stock markets, the banks and major industrial companies. To dislodge the Rothschilds from their deeply entrenched positions, the Pereires’ launched an all-out assault on several fronts – the stock markets, the boardrooms of major companies, and in the courts and chancelleries of Europe. The Pereires- one time employees of James – knew how the Rothschild system worked challenged them all over the Continent, by competing for business, and driving commissions and interest rates down.

 The Christian nobility who were jealous, and the masses who hated the Jewish financiers, and in particular the Rothschilds, poured so much money into Credit Mobilier, that the new bank was a great success; its share price rose, and the bank had ample funds to finance all the new projects. The Pereires actively encouraged and assisted the formation of similar public credit banks in other countries, whose governments welcomed the idea as a means of financing transportation systems and factories they had to build if they were not to fall even further behind the major industrial powers.

 In the face of this attack, James could rely on the help of powerful allies and the immense resources of the family. Accepting that he could not defeat the enemy in a single decisive battle, he hoped to lure the Pereire brothers into greater commitment. This would lead them to becoming over-extended, forfeiting public confidence, and turn their supporters against them.

 The Austrian State Railways was a creation of Anselm Rothschild. The Austrian government was in a financial mess, thanks to the Rothschilds and the aftermath of the 1848 revolutions. To solve the financial crisis, the entire Austrian State Railways network was sold to Credit Mobilier, in January 1855. This was a Rothschild plan – feed the wolf so much that it dies of indigestion. This move emboldened the Pereires. They joined another old Rothschild enemy – von Sina, and planned to set up a sister bank in Austria. If it was successful, it would suck Austrian capital away from the Rothschilds just as Credit Mobilier had absorbed much of French capital. The Rothschilds did not allow for this. The Austrian Finance Minister, Baron von Bruck was in Anselm’s pocket. So, the Rothschilds got together with Bruck, and on October 1855, a new Austrian bank, the Credit Anstalt, was formed. Capitalised at 15 million Gulden, its shares were heavily subscribed by the public, and within days, its share price trebled.

 In early 1855, France suffered a serious drought, with its resulting devastation on France’s agro-economy. This led to a surge of food imports. The Bank of France ran short of gold – needed to pay for these imports, and it turned to James for help.  A huge amount of gold was pumped into France by the Rothschild banks. The collapse of the agro-economy led to unemployment, and depression. Share prices fell. Demand for finance by the government increased. The Credit Mobilier found itself over-extended. In 1857, it put its railway company in France, Grand Central into liquidation; rival companies were gobbling up its pieces. Investors started selling Credit Mobilier shares. Ten years later, in 1867, it collapsed with its share price now at 7 Francs. The Pereires challenge had failed. The Rothschilds had proved invincible.

 For James, 1855 was a bad year. His three surviving brothers died: Salomon in Austria, Amschel in Frankfurt, and Carl in Naples, Italy. Since both Amschel and Carl had no son s- only daughters, and Amschel had no children; thus, there could be no continuity of the Frankfurt and Naples branches. Thus, the business of these two houses moved over to Paris. . Frankfurt had lost its “free city “status. This resulted in the banks moving over to Berlin. The family did not follow the move to Berlin, as anti-Jewish sentiment was running very high. Their agents, The Bleichroders along with Warburgs took over the running of the Rothschilds financial interests in Germany.

A United Italy is Born

 Like Germany, Italy was a confusion of insecure little states whose governments were in constant need of money, both for defence and as well for industrialization. When Piedmont, the most progressive Italian state wanted money, it negotiated with the Rothschild house in Paris. James Rothschild promoted his man, Camillo Cavour to be Prime Minister of Piedmont in 1852. The leaders of the various Italian statelets refused to merge into one nation. The leader of Italian Freemasonry called Garibaldi was put at the service of Cavour. The Paris house put up all the funds for the campaign which kicked off in 1860. The revolt seized Sicily first, then Naples.  Within a year, all the other states gave in, and the new Kingdom of Italy, established in 1861, quickly modernized and built a large colonial empire, colonizing parts of Africa, and countries along the Mediterranean.

The Family Punishes Austria

 Salomon’s son, Anselm, ran the Austrian branch. By the 1860s he had passed control to his two sons, Nathaniel and Salomon Albert, or Salbert for short. Despite the enormous advances made by Salomon, Anselm and his family belonged to the second tier of Austrian high society. As Jews, they were looked down upon by the nobility. This atmosphere pervaded their bank, Credit Anstalt.

 The bank’s board was divided into two factions; the aristocrats and the financiers. The Rothschilds wanted greater investments in private enterprise, especially heavy engineering. They were met with constant opposition from the conservative aristocrats, who believed in directing funds to support the government, a policy which the Rothschilds would not tolerate. A plan was hatched to punish Austria and remove the irritating aristocrats from power.

 James hatched a plan that that brought about war between Piedmont and Austria. As the Austrian government was broke, it asked Credit Anstalt for funds to feed the army. A scandal broke out over this. The Finance Minister resigned, and the aristocrats were jailed. When the dust had settled in 1861, Nathaniel Rothschild took his father’s place at the bank. He was able to bring to fruition many of his father’s plans.  The fact that the Credit Anstalt became more of an industrial investment bank than an organ of state policy represented a quiet triumph for the family.

The Franco-Prussian War of 1870

The causes of the Franco-Prussian War are deeply rooted in the events surrounding the German unification. Austria still harbored resentment with the Rothschilds over the banking scandal.   They had not learnt their lesson, it seemed. The Austrians needed to be cut down to size. In June 1866, Bismarck went to war against Austria, and crushed Austria within 2 months.  Bismarck and the Prussian army were now ready for bigger targets. The family backed Prussia against Austria, and in the aftermath of the Austro-Prussian War (1866), Prussia had annexed numerous territories and formed the North German Confederation. Prussia then turned its attention towards the south of Germany, where it sought to expand its influence.

France was strongly opposed to the annexation of the Southern German States, which would have created too powerful a country next to its border. In Prussia, a war against France was deemed necessary to arouse German nationalism in those States that would allow the unification of a great German empire. This aim was epitomized by Prussian Chancellor Otto von Bismarck’s quote: “I knew that a Franco-Prussian War must take place before a united Germany was formed.” Bismarck also knew that France should be the aggressor in the conflict to bring the Southern German States to side with Prussia, hence giving Germans numerical superiority. All this time, the Rothschilds mandated Bismarck to unify all the German-speaking states into one big unified German nation, with him as the first ruler of a new great power in Europe. This program for Bismarck was intoxicating.

 France was undergoing domestic turmoil, aggravated by its foreign adventures on behalf of the Rothschilds in Mexico and Italy.  The government was overloaded with debt.  According to the Rothschilds, France had to be punished. Bismarck and the Prussian army was chosen as the instrument of their revenge. Bismarck’s ambition of welding Germany together into a modern state, and winning her a place among the great powers involved the cynical manipulation of rivalries and alliances , and the creation of the best and most modern army.

 In this atmosphere of anxiety and mistrust which this created, the governments of Europe needed more than ever a reliable, up to date, information and intelligence service. And the Rothschilds still had the best in this field.  They had built up an extensive and complex network of sources and informants. They had business, social, and political contacts all over Europe, and beyond. Their underground network- which was covert and hidden – was comprised of the Freemason, the Illuminati, and criminal networks, which was always at the family’s service. This hidden network gave them powerful advantages over their competitors and enemies. Their couriers had priority access to the main railways. It would be quite impossible to unravel how this formidable private intelligence service worked. Much of it operated in total secrecy.

The immediate cause of the war resided in the candidacy of a Prussian prince to the throne of Spain – France feared encirclement by an alliance between Prussia and Spain. The prince’s candidacy was withdrawn under French diplomatic pressure, but Otto von Bismarck goaded the French into declaring war by altering a telegram sent by Prussian King William I. Releasing the telegram to the public, Bismarck made it sound as if the king had treated the French envoy in a demeaning fashion. Six days later, France declared war on Prussia and Southern German States immediately sided with Prussia.

French Emperor Napoleon III eagerness to relieve France from internal political convulsions also contributed to France’s declaration of war on Prussia. At this time, France was being punished by the Rothschilds for siding with the enemies of the Family, namely the Pereires. The war lasted for 6 months, and 500,000 lives were lost in the process. France was defeated.  This was payback from the Rothschilds to France for backing the Pereire brothers against the Rothschilds. This war, in turn, led to the unification of Germany as one powerful nation.

In peace meetings in February 1871, Bismarck imposed harsh terms on the French. The heavy financial burden was designed to cripple and humiliate France. Alphonse Rothschild- son of James was called by the French to be their chief negotiator. In a matter of months Alphonse raised 5 billion francs as war indemnity to be paid to Germany. This was the first loan. A second loan, two years later, raised a staggering 43 billion francs.

 The results of this major financial coup were dramatic. It brought huge profits to the participating banks – commissions alone ran to several hundred million francs. They had to risk none of their own money, plus they had short-term use of billions. For the Paris house, this triumph raised them to a level of prestige which they had not enjoyed since 1848. They were now partners in the successful foundation of the Third Republic, and their political influence was henceforth guaranteed. But that influence would continue to be exercised “behind the scenes”.  The Paris house had come through 40 years non-stop storm and stress, and had emerged as undisputed master of both European and the French money markets.

 For centuries there has been big money to be made by international bankers in the financing of governments and kings. Such operators are faced with certain thorny problems. We know that smaller banking operations protect themselves by taking collateral, but what kind of collateral can you get from a government or King? What if the banker comes to collect and the king says,  “Off with his head”? The process through which one collects a debt from a government or a king is not a subject taught in the business schools of our universities, and most of us – never having been in the business  of financing kings – have not given the problem much thought. But there is a king-financing business and to those who can ensure collection, it is lucrative indeed.

 There are two means used to collateralize loans to governments and kings. Whenever a business borrows big money, its creditor obtains a voice in management to protect his investment. Like a business, no government can borrow big money unless willing to surrender to the creditor some measure of sovereignty as collateral.  Certainly international; bankers who have loaned billions to governments around the world command considerable influence in the policies of such governments.

 But the ultimate advantage the creditor has over the king or president is that if the ruler gets out of line, the banker can finance his enemy or rival, or an opposition party – in parliamentary politics. Therefore if you want to stay in the lucrative king-financing, or government-financing business, it is wise to have an enemy or rival waiting in the wings to unseat every king or president to whom you lend. If the king or president doesn’t have an enemy, you must create one.

 The Rothschilds became incredibly wealthy during the 19th century by financing governments to fight each other. If one looks back at every war in Europe during the 19th century, you will see they always ended with the establishment of a “Balance-of- Power”. With every re-shuffling there was a balance of power in a new grouping around the House of Rothschild in England, France or Austria. They grouped nations so that if any king got out of line, a war would break out and the war would be decided by which way the financing went. Researching the debt positions of the warring nations will usually indicate who was to be punished.

 Since the keystone of international banking empires has been government bonds, it has been in the interest of these international bankers to encourage government debt. The higher the debt, the more the interest. Nothing drives government deeply into debt like a war, and it has been a common practice to finance both sides of military conflicts.

 But while wars and revolutions have been useful to international bankers in gaining or increasing control over governments, the key to such control has always been control of money. You can control a government if you have it in your debt;  a creditor is in a position to demand the privileges of monopoly from a sovereign. Money-seeking governments have granted monopolies in state banking, natural resources, oil concessions, transport, and utilities. However the monopoly which the international financiers most covet is control over a nation’s money.

 Eventually, these international bankers actually owned as private corporations the central banks of various European nations. The Bank of England, Bank of France and the Bank of Germany, or the Reichsbank, were owned by the Rothschilds and their allies. All those who have sought dictatorial control over modern nations have understood the necessity of a central bank. When Amschel Rothschild’s League of Virtue, or the League of Just men hired Karl Marx to write a blueprint for conquest called “The Communist Manifesto”, the 5th point read: “ Centralization of credit in the hands of the state, by means of a national bank with state capital and an exclusive monopoly“. The Rothschilds set up their own front man in charge of each of Europe’s central banks.

 In conclusion, the Rothschild brothers re-arranged Europe, and also were behind the formations of nations such as Belgium, Germany and Italy. Soon, they would establish central banks in all the countries of Europe. Only Russia was left.

 Due to a lack of sons, the Italian and German houses closed down, leaving only the Austrian, French and British houses still functioning. In 1940, Adolf Hitler invaded Austria, and this marked the end of the Austrian house. In the end, only two houses remained, but these two branches became very wealthy and powerful. The wealth of the three houses that closed down shifted to the Paris house – and this made the Paris house far richer than the London house. The French branch went heavily into industry and commerce, while the British house had its eye on bigger things. It managed the expansion of the British Empire in its global plundering spree. In the division of labor between the two houses, the British branch led, and France was often the “junior partner”, as we shall see, going forward.

 The next article in this series now moves the focus onto London, and its geopolitical battles with America, India, China, Russia and the Ottoman Empire.

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